Animation 1: Shearing of a small sample of mush (1cm3). The viscosity of the liquid is 100 Pa s and its density is 2400 kg m-3. The crystals have the same size (2*0.5*0.5 mm) and density (2700 kg m-3). The motion of the liquid is imposed at the top (vx = 1 10-5 m s-1) and bottom (vx =0 m s-1) of the domain. The crystals are entrained by the liquid.
Animation 2: Shearing of a small sample of mush (1cm3) with a confining pressure (10 Pa). The viscosity of the liquid is 104 Pa s and its density is 2400 kg m-3. The crystals have the same size (2*0.5*0.5 mm) and density (2700 kg m-3). the simulation is controlled by an upper plate (displayed in the animation). Between 0 s and 10s, the normal pressure imposed by the upper plate is linearly increased to 10 Pa s. Between 10 s and 20 s, the lateral velocity (vx) is increased linearly to 10-4 m s-1 while the normal pressure is kept constant. Then both the normal pressure and lateral velocity are kept constant. The continuous fields represent mean-field of the particles computed using coarse-graining (Weinhart et al., 2013; Weinhart et al., 2016; Breard et al., 2020). On the left: The local shear rate (dvx/dx). On the right: The order parameter S (Guo et al., 2013). Equal to 1 when the particles are oriented in the same direction and 0 when randomly organized.